Wallaroo Frequently Asked Questions

Wallaroo frequently asked questions

How Do I Install Wallaroo?

The Wallaroo Install Guides contain all steps on how to register with Wallaroo and receive a license, install Wallaroo into a Kubernetes cluster, and get Wallaroo running.

What Are The Prerequisites For Installing Wallaroo In A Cloud Service?

Wallaroo Community and Wallaroo Enterprise can be installed into a Kubernetes environment with the following requirements:

  • Minimum number of nodes: 4
  • Minimum Number of CPU Cores: 8
  • Minimum RAM: 16 GB
  • Kubernetes requirements:
    • Kubernetes Version
      • 1.20 is the minimum requirement
      • 1.22 is preferred version for Wallaroo versions before 2022.4.
      • 1.23:
        • Is the preferred version for Wallaroo version 2022.4.
      • 1.23 and above:
        • Are the preferred versions for Wallaroo versions 2023.1 and later.
        • Are not supported for versions of Wallaroo released before Wallaroo version 2022.4.
      • 1.29:
        • The preferred version for Wallaroo 2024.1
    • Runtime: containerd is required.

The following guide demonstrate how to set up a minimum Kubernetes environment in their cloud services and install Wallaroo:

Who Do I Contact For More Help With Wallaroo Community?

Wallaroo Community users can message community@wallaroo.ai for more assistance. Feel free to ask any questions about:

  • Installing Wallaroo
  • Uploading models and deploying pipelines
  • How to use the SDK

How Do I Set Up My Wallaroo Community User Account?

Setting up a Wallaroo Community account is fast and easy at https://portal.wallaroo.community. See the Wallaroo Install Guides for full details on registering an account and downloading your Wallaroo Community License.

How Do I Invite Collaborators And Peers To Work With After Installing Wallaroo?

Yes you can! Wallaroo Community supports up to 2 team members, while Wallaroo Enterprise has no such limitations.

See the Wallaroo User Management Guide for how to add users to your Wallaroo instance. For details on how to add users to a Wallaroo Workspace, see the Wallaroo Workspace Management Guide.

What Are The Resources I Need To Be Able To Learn About The Wallaroo Platform?

Wallaroo has provided the following resources to help you:

  • The Wallaroo 101 Guide teaches the basic concepts of how Wallaroo works, then provides a full tutorial for uploading a model and running an inference.
  • Wallaroo Tutorials are paired with the Wallaroo Tutorials Repository to provide Jupyter Notebooks that you can upload to Wallaroo along with sample models and data to see how to deploy your own ML Models.
  • The Wallaroo Essential SDK walks you the process of user, model, workspace, and pipeline management using the Wallaroo SDK.

How Fast is Wallaroo?

Not only is Wallaroo fast - its more cost efficient. Using the Aloha Tutorial as a benchmark, Wallaroo provides the following:

 # inferences per secondinferences/dollar
Vertex1.8246,493,506
Databricks1.85616,000,000
SageMaker5.00828,169,014
Wallaroo21.584127,659,574

How Can I Bring My Models Into Wallaroo?

Absolutely! Wallaroo supports the ONNX ML Standard and can convert other models through our auto-conversion feature.

Supported Models

The following frameworks are supported. Frameworks fall under either Wallaroo Native Runtimes or Wallaroo Containerized Runtimes in the Wallaroo engine. For more details, see the specific framework what runtime a specific model framework runs in.

The Wallaroo Model Runtime is displayed after a model is uploaded with the wallaroo.model.config().runtime() method. The following table displays the type of Runtime associated with each possible display.

Runtime DisplayModel Runtime SpacePipeline Configuration
tensorflowNativeNative Runtime Configuration Methods
onnxNativeNative Runtime Configuration Methods
pythonNativeNative Runtime Configuration Methods
mlflowContainerizedContainerized Runtime Deployment
flightContainerizedContainerized Runtime Deployment

Please note the following.

Native Model Runtimes

Wallaroo ONNX Requirements

Wallaroo natively supports Open Neural Network Exchange (ONNX) models into the Wallaroo engine.

ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://onnx.ai/
Supported LibrariesSee table below.
FrameworkFramework.ONNX aka onnx
RuntimeNative aka onnx
Supported Versions1.12.1

The following ONNX versions models are supported:

ONNX VersionONNX IR VersionONNX OPset VersionONNX ML Opset Version
1.12.18173
  • If converting another ML Model to ONNX (PyTorch, XGBoost, etc) using the onnxconverter-common library, the supported DEFAULT_OPSET_NUMBER is 17.

Using different versions or settings outside of these specifications may result in inference issues and other unexpected behavior.

ONNX models always run in the Wallaroo Native Runtime space.

ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://www.tensorflow.org/
Supported Librariestensorflow==2.9.3
FrameworkFramework.TENSORFLOW aka tensorflow
Supported File TypesSavedModel format as .zip file

TensorFlow File Format

TensorFlow models are .zip file of the SavedModel format. For example, the Aloha sample TensorFlow model is stored in the directory alohacnnlstm:

├── saved_model.pb
└── variables
    ├── variables.data-00000-of-00002
    ├── variables.data-00001-of-00002
    └── variables.index

This is compressed into the .zip file alohacnnlstm.zip with the following command:

zip -r alohacnnlstm.zip alohacnnlstm/

ML models that meet the Tensorflow and SavedModel format will run as Wallaroo Native runtimes by default.

See the SavedModel guide for full details.

ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://www.python.org/
Supported Librariespython==3.8
FrameworkFramework.PYTHON aka python

Python models uploaded to Wallaroo are executed Wallaroo Containerized Runtime.

Note that Python models - aka “Python steps” - are standalone python scripts that use the python libraries. These are commonly used for data formatting such as the pre and post-processing steps, and are also appropriate for simple models (such as ARIMA Statsmodels). A Wallaroo Python model can be composed of one or more Python script that matches the Wallaroo requirements.

This is contrasted with Arbitrary Python models, also known as Bring Your Own Predict (BYOP) that allow for custom model inference methods with supporting scripts and artifacts. These are used with pre-trained models (PyTorch, Tensorflow, etc) along with their supporting artifacts such as other Python modules, scripts, model files, etc.

Python Models Requirements

Python scripts packaged as Python models in Wallaroo have the following requirements.

  • At least one .py Python script file with the following:
    • Must be compatible with Python version 3.8.

    • Imports the mac.types.InferenceData included with the Wallaroo SDK. For example:

      from mac.types import InferenceData
      
    • Includes the following method as the entry point for Wallaroo model inferencing:

      def process_data(input_data: InferenceData) -> InferenceData:
          # additional code block here
      
      • Only one implementation of process_data(input_data: InferenceData) -> InferenceData is allowed. There can be as many Python scripts included in the .zip file as needed, but only one can have this method as the entry point.

        • The process_data function must return a dictionary where the keys are strings and the values are NumPy arrays. In the case of single values (scalars) these must be single-element arrays. For example:

          def process_data(input_data: InferenceData) -> InferenceData:
           # return a dictionary with the field output that transforms the input field `variable` to its value to the 10th power.
            return {
              'output' =  np.rint(np.power(10, input_data["variable"]))
            }
          
      • InferenceData represents a dictionary of numpy arrays where the first dimension is always the batch size. The type annotations set in the input_schema and output_schema for the model when uploaded must be present and correct.

      • process_data accepts and returns InferenceData. Any other implementations will return an error.

    • (Optional): A requirements.txt file that includes any additional Python libraries required by the Python script with the following requirements:

      • The Python libraries must match the targeted infrastructure. For details on uploading models to a specific infrastructures such as ARM, see Automated Model Packaging.
      • The Python libraries must be compatible with Python version python==3.8.6.

The Python script, optional requirements.txt file, and artifacts are packaged in a .zip file with the Python script and optional requirements.txt file in the root folder. For example, the sample files stored in the folder preprocess-step:

/preprocss-step
    sample-script.py
    requirements.txt
    /artifacts
        datalist.csv

The files are packaged into a .zip file. For example, the following packages the contents of the folder preprocess_step into preprocess_step.zip.

zip -r preprocess_step.zip preprocess_step/*

In the example below, the Python model is used as a pre processing step for another ML model. It accepts as an input the InferenceData submitted as part of an inference request. It then formats the data and outputs a dictionary of numpy arrays with the field tensor. This data is then able to be passed to the next model in a pipeline step.

import datetime
import logging

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

import wallaroo

from mac.types import InferenceData

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

_vars = [
    "bedrooms",
    "bathrooms",
    "sqft_living",
    "sqft_lot",
    "floors",
    "waterfront",
    "view",
    "condition",
    "grade",
    "sqft_above",
    "sqft_basement",
    "lat",
    "long",
    "sqft_living15",
    "sqft_lot15",
    "house_age",
    "renovated",
    "yrs_since_reno",
]


def process_data(input_data: InferenceData) -> InferenceData:
    input_df = pd.DataFrame(input_data)
    thisyear = datetime.datetime.now().year
    input_df["house_age"] = thisyear - input_df["yr_built"]
    input_df["renovated"] = np.where((input_df["yr_renovated"] > 0), 1, 0)
    input_df["yrs_since_reno"] = np.where(
        input_df["renovated"],
        input_df["yr_renovated"] - input_df["yr_built"],
        0,
    )
    input_df = input_df.loc[:, _vars]

    return {"tensor": input_df.to_numpy(dtype=np.float32)}

In line with other Wallaroo inference results, the outputs of a Python step that returns a pandas DataFrame or Arrow Table will be listed in the out. metadata, with all inference outputs listed as out.{variable 1}, out.{variable 2}, etc. For example, a postprocessing Python step that is the final model step in a pipeline with the output field output is included in the out dataset as the field out.output in the Wallaroo inference result.

 timein.tensorout.outputanomaly.count
02023-06-20 20:23:28.395[0.6878518042, 0.1760734021, -0.869514083, 0.3..[12.886651039123535]0

Containerized Model Runtimes

ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://huggingface.co/models
Supported Libraries
  • transformers==4.34.1
  • diffusers==0.14.0
  • accelerate==0.23.0
  • torchvision==0.14.1
  • torch==2.0.0
FrameworksThe following Hugging Face pipelines are supported by Wallaroo.
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_FEATURE_EXTRACTION aka hugging-face-feature-extraction
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_IMAGE_CLASSIFICATION aka hugging-face-image-classification
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_IMAGE_SEGMENTATION aka hugging-face-image-segmentation
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_IMAGE_TO_TEXT aka hugging-face-image-to-text
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_OBJECT_DETECTION aka hugging-face-object-detection
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_QUESTION_ANSWERING aka hugging-face-question-answering
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_STABLE_DIFFUSION_TEXT_2_IMG aka hugging-face-stable-diffusion-text-2-img
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_SUMMARIZATION aka hugging-face-summarization
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_TEXT_CLASSIFICATION aka hugging-face-text-classification
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_TRANSLATION aka hugging-face-translation
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_ZERO_SHOT_CLASSIFICATION aka hugging-face-zero-shot-classification
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_ZERO_SHOT_IMAGE_CLASSIFICATION aka hugging-face-zero-shot-image-classification
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_ZERO_SHOT_OBJECT_DETECTION aka hugging-face-zero-shot-object-detection
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_SENTIMENT_ANALYSIS aka hugging-face-sentiment-analysis
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_TEXT_GENERATION aka hugging-face-text-generation
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_AUTOMATIC_SPEECH_RECOGNITION aka hugging-face-automatic-speech-recognition

During the model upload process, the Wallaroo instance will attempt to convert the model to a Native Wallaroo Runtime. If unsuccessful, a Wallaroo Containerized Runtime for the model is generated instead. See the model deployment section for details on how to configure pipeline resources based on the model’s runtime.

Hugging Face Schemas

Input and output schemas for each Hugging Face pipeline are defined below. Note that adding additional inputs not specified below will raise errors, except for the following:

  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_IMAGE_TO_TEXT
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_TEXT_CLASSIFICATION
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_SUMMARIZATION
  • Framework.HUGGING_FACE_TRANSLATION

Additional inputs added to these Hugging Face pipelines will be added as key/pair value arguments to the model’s generate method. If the argument is not required, then the model will default to the values coded in the original Hugging Face model’s source code.

See the Hugging Face Pipeline documentation for more details on each pipeline and framework.

Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_FEATURE_EXTRACTION

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.string())
])
output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('output', pa.list_(
        pa.list_(
            pa.float64(),
            list_size=128
        ),
    ))
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_IMAGE_CLASSIFICATION

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.list_(
        pa.list_(
            pa.list_(
                pa.int64(),
                list_size=3
            ),
            list_size=100
        ),
        list_size=100
    )),
    pa.field('top_k', pa.int64()),
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('score', pa.list_(pa.float64(), list_size=2)),
    pa.field('label', pa.list_(pa.string(), list_size=2)),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_IMAGE_SEGMENTATION

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', 
        pa.list_(
            pa.list_(
                pa.list_(
                    pa.int64(),
                    list_size=3
                ),
                list_size=100
            ),
        list_size=100
    )),
    pa.field('threshold', pa.float64()),
    pa.field('mask_threshold', pa.float64()),
    pa.field('overlap_mask_area_threshold', pa.float64()),
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('score', pa.list_(pa.float64())),
    pa.field('label', pa.list_(pa.string())),
    pa.field('mask', 
        pa.list_(
            pa.list_(
                pa.list_(
                    pa.int64(),
                    list_size=100
                ),
                list_size=100
            ),
    )),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_IMAGE_TO_TEXT

Any parameter that is not part of the required inputs list will be forwarded to the model as a key/pair value to the underlying models generate method. If the additional input is not supported by the model, an error will be returned.

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.list_( #required
        pa.list_(
            pa.list_(
                pa.int64(),
                list_size=3
            ),
            list_size=100
        ),
        list_size=100
    )),
    # pa.field('max_new_tokens', pa.int64()),  # optional
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('generated_text', pa.list_(pa.string())),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_OBJECT_DETECTION

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', 
        pa.list_(
            pa.list_(
                pa.list_(
                    pa.int64(),
                    list_size=3
                ),
                list_size=100
            ),
        list_size=100
    )),
    pa.field('threshold', pa.float64()),
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('score', pa.list_(pa.float64())),
    pa.field('label', pa.list_(pa.string())),
    pa.field('box', 
        pa.list_( # dynamic output, i.e. dynamic number of boxes per input image, each sublist contains the 4 box coordinates 
            pa.list_(
                    pa.int64(),
                    list_size=4
                ),
            ),
    ),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_QUESTION_ANSWERING

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('question', pa.string()),
    pa.field('context', pa.string()),
    pa.field('top_k', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('doc_stride', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('max_answer_len', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('max_seq_len', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('max_question_len', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('handle_impossible_answer', pa.bool_()),
    pa.field('align_to_words', pa.bool_()),
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('score', pa.float64()),
    pa.field('start', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('end', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('answer', pa.string()),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_STABLE_DIFFUSION_TEXT_2_IMG

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('prompt', pa.string()),
    pa.field('height', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('width', pa.int64()),
    pa.field('num_inference_steps', pa.int64()), # optional
    pa.field('guidance_scale', pa.float64()), # optional
    pa.field('negative_prompt', pa.string()), # optional
    pa.field('num_images_per_prompt', pa.string()), # optional
    pa.field('eta', pa.float64()) # optional
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('images', pa.list_(
        pa.list_(
            pa.list_(
                pa.int64(),
                list_size=3
            ),
            list_size=128
        ),
        list_size=128
    )),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_SUMMARIZATION

Any parameter that is not part of the required inputs list will be forwarded to the model as a key/pair value to the underlying models generate method. If the additional input is not supported by the model, an error will be returned.

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.string()),
    pa.field('return_text', pa.bool_()),
    pa.field('return_tensors', pa.bool_()),
    pa.field('clean_up_tokenization_spaces', pa.bool_()),
    # pa.field('extra_field', pa.int64()), # every extra field you specify will be forwarded as a key/value pair
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('summary_text', pa.string()),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_TEXT_CLASSIFICATION

Schemas

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.string()), # required
    pa.field('top_k', pa.int64()), # optional
    pa.field('function_to_apply', pa.string()), # optional
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('label', pa.list_(pa.string(), list_size=2)), # list with a number of items same as top_k, list_size can be skipped but may lead in worse performance
    pa.field('score', pa.list_(pa.float64(), list_size=2)), # list with a number of items same as top_k, list_size can be skipped but may lead in worse performance
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_TRANSLATION

Any parameter that is not part of the required inputs list will be forwarded to the model as a key/pair value to the underlying models generate method. If the additional input is not supported by the model, an error will be returned.

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.string()), # required
    pa.field('return_tensors', pa.bool_()), # optional
    pa.field('return_text', pa.bool_()), # optional
    pa.field('clean_up_tokenization_spaces', pa.bool_()), # optional
    pa.field('src_lang', pa.string()), # optional
    pa.field('tgt_lang', pa.string()), # optional
    # pa.field('extra_field', pa.int64()), # every extra field you specify will be forwarded as a key/value pair
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('translation_text', pa.string()),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_ZERO_SHOT_CLASSIFICATION

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.string()), # required
    pa.field('candidate_labels', pa.list_(pa.string(), list_size=2)), # required
    pa.field('hypothesis_template', pa.string()), # optional
    pa.field('multi_label', pa.bool_()), # optional
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('sequence', pa.string()),
    pa.field('scores', pa.list_(pa.float64(), list_size=2)), # same as number of candidate labels, list_size can be skipped by may result in slightly worse performance
    pa.field('labels', pa.list_(pa.string(), list_size=2)), # same as number of candidate labels, list_size can be skipped by may result in slightly worse performance
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_ZERO_SHOT_IMAGE_CLASSIFICATION

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', # required
        pa.list_(
            pa.list_(
                pa.list_(
                    pa.int64(),
                    list_size=3
                ),
                list_size=100
            ),
        list_size=100
    )),
    pa.field('candidate_labels', pa.list_(pa.string(), list_size=2)), # required
    pa.field('hypothesis_template', pa.string()), # optional
]) 

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('score', pa.list_(pa.float64(), list_size=2)), # same as number of candidate labels
    pa.field('label', pa.list_(pa.string(), list_size=2)), # same as number of candidate labels
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_ZERO_SHOT_OBJECT_DETECTION

Schemas:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('images', 
        pa.list_(
            pa.list_(
                pa.list_(
                    pa.int64(),
                    list_size=3
                ),
                list_size=640
            ),
        list_size=480
    )),
    pa.field('candidate_labels', pa.list_(pa.string(), list_size=3)),
    pa.field('threshold', pa.float64()),
    # pa.field('top_k', pa.int64()), # we want the model to return exactly the number of predictions, we shouldn't specify this
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('score', pa.list_(pa.float64())), # variable output, depending on detected objects
    pa.field('label', pa.list_(pa.string())), # variable output, depending on detected objects
    pa.field('box', 
        pa.list_( # dynamic output, i.e. dynamic number of boxes per input image, each sublist contains the 4 box coordinates 
            pa.list_(
                    pa.int64(),
                    list_size=4
                ),
            ),
    ),
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_SENTIMENT_ANALYSISHugging Face Sentiment Analysis
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_TEXT_GENERATION

Any parameter that is not part of the required inputs list will be forwarded to the model as a key/pair value to the underlying models generate method. If the additional input is not supported by the model, an error will be returned.

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.string()),
    pa.field('return_tensors', pa.bool_()), # optional
    pa.field('return_text', pa.bool_()), # optional
    pa.field('return_full_text', pa.bool_()), # optional
    pa.field('clean_up_tokenization_spaces', pa.bool_()), # optional
    pa.field('prefix', pa.string()), # optional
    pa.field('handle_long_generation', pa.string()), # optional
    # pa.field('extra_field', pa.int64()), # every extra field you specify will be forwarded as a key/value pair
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('generated_text', pa.list_(pa.string(), list_size=1))
])
Wallaroo FrameworkReference
Framework.HUGGING_FACE_AUTOMATIC_SPEECH_RECOGNITION

Sample input and output schema.

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.list_(pa.float32())), # required: the audio stored in numpy arrays of shape (num_samples,) and data type `float32`
    pa.field('return_timestamps', pa.string()) # optional: return start & end times for each predicted chunk
]) 

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('text', pa.string()), # required: the output text corresponding to the audio input
    pa.field('chunks', pa.list_(pa.struct([('text', pa.string()), ('timestamp', pa.list_(pa.float32()))]))), # required (if `return_timestamps` is set), start & end times for each predicted chunk
])
ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://pytorch.org/
Supported Libraries
  • torch==2.0.0
  • torchvision==0.14.1
FrameworkFramework.PYTORCH aka pytorch
Supported File Typespt ot pth in TorchScript format

During the model upload process, Wallaroo optimizes models by converting them to the Wallaroo Native Runtime, if possible, or running the model directly in the Wallaroo Containerized Runtime. See the Model Deploy for details on how to configure pipeline resources based on the model’s runtime.

  • IMPORTANT CONFIGURATION NOTE: For PyTorch input schemas, the floats must be pyarrow.float32() for the PyTorch model to be converted to the Native Wallaroo Runtime during the upload process.

PyTorch Input and Output Schemas

PyTorch input and output schemas have additional requirements depending on whether the PyTorch model is single input/output or multiple input/output. This refers to the number of columns:

  • Single Input/Output: Has one input and one output column.
  • Multiple Input/Output: Has more than one input or more than one output column.

The column names for the model can be anything. For example:

  • Model Input Fields:
    • length
    • width
    • intensity
    • etc

When creating the input and output schemas for uploading a PyTorch model in Wallaroo, the field names must match the following requirements. For example, for multi-column PyTorch models, the input would be:

  • Data Schema Input Fields:
    • input_1
    • input_2
    • input_3
    • input_...

For single input/output PyTorch model, the field names must be input and output. For example, if the input field is a List of Floats of size 10, and the output field is a list of floats of list size one, the input and output schemas are:

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('input', pa.list_(pa.float32(), list_size=10))
])

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('output', pa.list_(pa.float32(), list_size=1))
])

For multi input/output PyTorch models, the data schemas for each input and output field must be named input_1, input_2... and output_1, output_2, etc. These must be in the same order that the PyTorch model is trained to accept them.

For example, a multi input/output PyTorch model that takes the following inputs and outputs:

  • Inputs
    • input_1: List of Floats of length 10.
    • input_2: List of Floats of length 5.
  • Outputs
    • output_1: List of Floats of length 3.
    • output_2: List of Floats of length 2.

The following input and output schemas would be used.

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('input_1', pa.list_(pa.float32(), list_size=10)),
    pa.field('input_2', pa.list_(pa.float32(), list_size=5))
])
output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('output_1', pa.list_(pa.float32(), list_size=3)),
    pa.field('output_2', pa.list_(pa.float32(), list_size=2))
])

Sci-kit Learn aka SKLearn.

ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://scikit-learn.org/stable/index.html
Supported Libraries
  • scikit-learn==1.3.0
FrameworkFramework.SKLEARN aka sklearn

During the model upload process, Wallaroo optimizes models by converting them to the Wallaroo Native Runtime, if possible, or running the model directly in the Wallaroo Containerized Runtime. See the Model Deploy for details on how to configure pipeline resources based on the model’s runtime.

SKLearn Schema Inputs

SKLearn schema follows a different format than other models. To prevent inputs from being out of order, the inputs should be submitted in a single row in the order the model is trained to accept, with all of the data types being the same. For example, the following DataFrame has 4 columns, each column a float.

 sepal length (cm)sepal width (cm)petal length (cm)petal width (cm)
05.13.51.40.2
14.93.01.40.2

For submission to an SKLearn model, the data input schema will be a single array with 4 float values.

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.list_(pa.float64(), list_size=4))
])

When submitting as an inference, the DataFrame is converted to rows with the column data expressed as a single array. The data must be in the same order as the model expects, which is why the data is submitted as a single array rather than JSON labeled columns: this insures that the data is submitted in the exact order as the model is trained to accept.

Original DataFrame:

 sepal length (cm)sepal width (cm)petal length (cm)petal width (cm)
05.13.51.40.2
14.93.01.40.2

Converted DataFrame:

 inputs
0[5.1, 3.5, 1.4, 0.2]
1[4.9, 3.0, 1.4, 0.2]

SKLearn Schema Outputs

Outputs for SKLearn that are meant to be predictions or probabilities when output by the model are labeled in the output schema for the model when uploaded to Wallaroo. For example, a model that outputs either 1 or 0 as its output would have the output schema as follows:

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('predictions', pa.int32())
])

When used in Wallaroo, the inference result is contained in the out metadata as out.predictions.

pipeline.infer(dataframe)
 timein.inputsout.predictionsanomaly.count
02023-07-05 15:11:29.776[5.1, 3.5, 1.4, 0.2]00
12023-07-05 15:11:29.776[4.9, 3.0, 1.4, 0.2]00
ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://www.tensorflow.org/api_docs/python/tf/keras/Model
Supported Libraries
  • tensorflow==2.9.3
  • keras==2.9.0
FrameworkFramework.KERAS aka keras
Supported File TypesSavedModel format as .zip file and HDF5 format

During the model upload process, Wallaroo optimizes models by converting them to the Wallaroo Native Runtime, if possible, or running the model directly in the Wallaroo Containerized Runtime. See the Model Deploy for details on how to configure pipeline resources based on the model’s runtime.

TensorFlow Keras SavedModel Format

TensorFlow Keras SavedModel models are .zip file of the SavedModel format. For example, the Aloha sample TensorFlow model is stored in the directory alohacnnlstm:

├── saved_model.pb
└── variables
    ├── variables.data-00000-of-00002
    ├── variables.data-00001-of-00002
    └── variables.index

This is compressed into the .zip file alohacnnlstm.zip with the following command:

zip -r alohacnnlstm.zip alohacnnlstm/

See the SavedModel guide for full details.

TensorFlow Keras H5 Format

Wallaroo supports the H5 for Tensorflow Keras models.

ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://xgboost.ai/
Supported Libraries
  • scikit-learn==1.3.0
  • xgboost==1.7.4
FrameworkFramework.XGBOOST aka xgboost
Supported File Typespickle (XGB files are not supported.)

During the model upload process, Wallaroo optimizes models by converting them to the Wallaroo Native Runtime, if possible, or running the model directly in the Wallaroo Containerized Runtime. See the Model Deploy for details on how to configure pipeline resources based on the model’s runtime.

Since the Wallaroo 2024.1 release, XGBoost support is enhanced to performantly support a wider set of XGBoost models. XGBoost models are not required to be trained with ONNX nomenclature in order to successfully convert to a performant runtime.

XGBoost Types Support

The following XGBoost model types are supported by Wallaroo. XGBoost models not supported by Wallaroo are supported via the Arbitrary Python models, also known as Bring Your Own Predict (BYOP).

XGBoost Model TypeWallaroo Packaging Supported
XGBClassifier
XGBRegressor
Booster Classifier
Booster Classifier
Booster Regressor
Booster Random Forest Regressor
Booster Random Forest Classifier
XGBRFClassifier
XGBRFRegressor
XGBRanker*X
  • XGBRanker XGBoost models are currently supported via converting them to BYOP models.

XGBoost Schema Inputs

XGBoost schema follows a different format than other models. To prevent inputs from being out of order, the inputs should be submitted in a single row in the order the model is trained to accept, with all of the data types being the same. If a model is originally trained to accept inputs of different data types, it will need to be retrained to only accept one data type for each column - typically pa.float64() is a good choice.

For example, the following DataFrame has 4 columns, each column a float.

 sepal length (cm)sepal width (cm)petal length (cm)petal width (cm)
05.13.51.40.2
14.93.01.40.2

For submission to an XGBoost model, the data input schema will be a single array with 4 float values.

input_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('inputs', pa.list_(pa.float64(), list_size=4))
])

When submitting as an inference, the DataFrame is converted to rows with the column data expressed as a single array. The data must be in the same order as the model expects, which is why the data is submitted as a single array rather than JSON labeled columns: this insures that the data is submitted in the exact order as the model is trained to accept.

Original DataFrame:

 sepal length (cm)sepal width (cm)petal length (cm)petal width (cm)
05.13.51.40.2
14.93.01.40.2

Converted DataFrame:

 inputs
0[5.1, 3.5, 1.4, 0.2]
1[4.9, 3.0, 1.4, 0.2]

XGBoost Schema Outputs

Outputs for XGBoost are labeled based on the trained model outputs.

Outputs for XBoost that are meant to be predictions or probabilities must be labeled as part of the output schema. For example, a model that outputs either 1 or 0 as its output would have the output schema as follows:

output_schema = pa.schema([
    pa.field('predictions', pa.int32())
])

When used in Wallaroo, the inference result is contained in the out metadata as out.predictions.

pipeline.infer(dataframe)
 timein.inputsout.predictionsanomaly.count
02023-07-05 15:11:29.776[5.1, 3.5, 1.4, 0.2]00
12023-07-05 15:11:29.776[4.9, 3.0, 1.4, 0.2]00
ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://www.python.org/
Supported Librariespython==3.8
FrameworkFramework.CUSTOM aka custom

Arbitrary Python models, also known as Bring Your Own Predict (BYOP) allow for custom model inference methods with supporting scripts and artifacts. These are used with pre-trained models (PyTorch, Tensorflow, etc) along with their supporting artifacts such as other Python modules, scripts, model files, etc.

Contrast this with Wallaroo Python models - aka “Python steps” - are standalone python scripts that use the python libraries. These are commonly used for data formatting such as the pre and post-processing steps, and are also appropriate for simple models (such as ARIMA Statsmodels). A Wallaroo Python model can be composed of one or more Python script that matches the Wallaroo requirements.

Arbitrary Python File Requirements

Arbitrary Python (BYOP) models are uploaded to Wallaroo via a ZIP file with the following components:

ArtifactTypeDescription
Python scripts aka .py files with classes that extend mac.inference.Inference and mac.inference.creation.InferenceBuilderPython ScriptExtend the classes mac.inference.Inference and mac.inference.creation.InferenceBuilder. These are included with the Wallaroo SDK. Further details are in Arbitrary Python Script Requirements. Note that there is no specified naming requirements for the classes that extend mac.inference.Inference and mac.inference.creation.InferenceBuilder - any qualified class name is sufficient as long as these two classes are extended as defined below.
requirements.txtPython requirements fileThis sets the Python libraries used for the arbitrary python model. These libraries should be targeted for Python 3.8 compliance. These requirements and the versions of libraries should be exactly the same between creating the model and deploying it in Wallaroo. This insures that the script and methods will function exactly the same as during the model creation process.
Other artifactsFilesOther models, files, and other artifacts used in support of this model.

For example, the if the arbitrary python model will be known as vgg_clustering, the contents may be in the following structure, with vgg_clustering as the storage directory:

vgg_clustering\
    feature_extractor.h5
    kmeans.pkl
    custom_inference.py
    requirements.txt

Note the inclusion of the custom_inference.py file. This file name is not required - any Python script or scripts that extend the classes listed above are sufficient. This Python script could have been named vgg_custom_model.py or any other name as long as it includes the extension of the classes listed above.

The sample arbitrary python model file is created with the command zip -r vgg_clustering.zip vgg_clustering/.

Wallaroo Arbitrary Python uses the Wallaroo SDK mac module, included in the Wallaroo SDK 2023.2.1 and above. See the Wallaroo SDK Install Guides for instructions on installing the Wallaroo SDK.

Arbitrary Python Script Requirements

The entry point of the arbitrary python model is any python script that extends the following classes. These are included with the Wallaroo SDK. The required methods that must be overridden are specified in each section below.

  • mac.inference.Inference interface serves model inferences based on submitted input some input. Its purpose is to serve inferences for any supported arbitrary model framework (e.g. scikit, keras etc.).

    classDiagram
        class Inference {
            <<Abstract>>
            +model Optional[Any]
            +expected_model_types()* Set
            +predict(input_data: InferenceData)*  InferenceData
            -raise_error_if_model_is_not_assigned() None
            -raise_error_if_model_is_wrong_type() None
        }
  • mac.inference.creation.InferenceBuilder builds a concrete Inference, i.e. instantiates an Inference object, loads the appropriate model and assigns the model to to the Inference object.

    classDiagram
        class InferenceBuilder {
            +create(config InferenceConfig) * Inference
            -inference()* Any
        }

mac.inference.Inference

mac.inference.Inference Objects
ObjectTypeDescription
model (Required)[Any]One or more objects that match the expected_model_types. This can be a ML Model (for inference use), a string (for data conversion), etc. See Arbitrary Python Examples for examples.
mac.inference.Inference Methods
MethodReturnsDescription
expected_model_types (Required)SetReturns a Set of models expected for the inference as defined by the developer. Typically this is a set of one. Wallaroo checks the expected model types to verify that the model submitted through the InferenceBuilder method matches what this Inference class expects.
_predict (input_data: mac.types.InferenceData) (Required)mac.types.InferenceDataThe entry point for the Wallaroo inference with the following input and output parameters that are defined when the model is updated.
  • mac.types.InferenceData: The input InferenceData is a Dictionary of numpy arrays derived from the input_schema detailed when the model is uploaded, defined in PyArrow.Schema format.
  • mac.types.InferenceData: The output is a Dictionary of numpy arrays as defined by the output parameters defined in PyArrow.Schema format.
The InferenceDataValidationError exception is raised when the input data does not match mac.types.InferenceData.
raise_error_if_model_is_not_assignedN/AError when a model is not set to Inference.
raise_error_if_model_is_wrong_typeN/AError when the model does not match the expected_model_types.

The example, the expected_model_types can be defined for the KMeans model.

from sklearn.cluster import KMeans

class SampleClass(mac.inference.Inference):
    @property
    def expected_model_types(self) -> Set[Any]:
        return {KMeans}

mac.inference.creation.InferenceBuilder

InferenceBuilder builds a concrete Inference, i.e. instantiates an Inference object, loads the appropriate model and assigns the model to the Inference.

classDiagram
    class InferenceBuilder {
        +create(config InferenceConfig) * Inference
        -inference()* Any
    }

Each model that is included requires its own InferenceBuilder. InferenceBuilder loads one model, then submits it to the Inference class when created. The Inference class checks this class against its expected_model_types() Set.

mac.inference.creation.InferenceBuilder Methods
MethodReturnsDescription
create(config mac.config.inference.CustomInferenceConfig) (Required)The custom Inference instance.Creates an Inference subclass, then assigns a model and attributes. The CustomInferenceConfig is used to retrieve the config.model_path, which is a pathlib.Path object pointing to the folder where the model artifacts are saved. Every artifact loaded must be relative to config.model_path. This is set when the arbitrary python .zip file is uploaded and the environment for running it in Wallaroo is set. For example: loading the artifact vgg_clustering\feature_extractor.h5 would be set with config.model_path \ feature_extractor.h5. The model loaded must match an existing module. For our example, this is from sklearn.cluster import KMeans, and this must match the Inference expected_model_types.
inferencecustom Inference instance.Returns the instantiated custom Inference object created from the create method.

Arbitrary Python Runtime

Arbitrary Python always run in the containerized model runtime.

ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://mlflow.org
Supported Librariesmlflow==1.3.0

For models that do not fall under the supported model frameworks, organizations can use containerized MLFlow ML Models.

This guide details how to add ML Models from a model registry service into Wallaroo.

Wallaroo supports both public and private containerized model registries. See the Wallaroo Private Containerized Model Container Registry Guide for details on how to configure a Wallaroo instance with a private model registry.

Wallaroo users can register their trained MLFlow ML Models from a containerized model container registry into their Wallaroo instance and perform inferences with it through a Wallaroo pipeline.

As of this time, Wallaroo only supports MLFlow 1.30.0 containerized models. For information on how to containerize an MLFlow model, see the MLFlow Documentation.

Data Schemas

ONNX models deployed to Wallaroo have the following data requirements.

  • Equal rows constraint: The number of input rows and output rows must match.
  • All inputs are tensors: The inputs are tensor arrays with the same shape.
  • Data Type Consistency: Data types within each tensor are of the same type.

Equal Rows Constraint

Inference performed through ONNX models are assumed to be in batch format, where each input row corresponds to an output row. This is reflected in the in fields returned for an inference. In the following example, each input row for an inference is related directly to the inference output.

df = pd.read_json('./data/cc_data_1k.df.json')
display(df.head())

result = ccfraud_pipeline.infer(df.head())
display(result)

INPUT

 tensor
0[-1.0603297501, 2.3544967095000002, -3.5638788326, 5.1387348926, -1.2308457019, -0.7687824608, -3.5881228109, 1.8880837663, -3.2789674274, -3.9563254554, 4.0993439118, -5.6539176395, -0.8775733373, -9.131571192000001, -0.6093537873, -3.7480276773, -5.0309125017, -0.8748149526000001, 1.9870535692, 0.7005485718000001, 0.9204422758, -0.1041491809, 0.3229564351, -0.7418141657, 0.0384120159, 1.0993439146, 1.2603409756, -0.1466244739, -1.4463212439]
1[-1.0603297501, 2.3544967095000002, -3.5638788326, 5.1387348926, -1.2308457019, -0.7687824608, -3.5881228109, 1.8880837663, -3.2789674274, -3.9563254554, 4.0993439118, -5.6539176395, -0.8775733373, -9.131571192000001, -0.6093537873, -3.7480276773, -5.0309125017, -0.8748149526000001, 1.9870535692, 0.7005485718000001, 0.9204422758, -0.1041491809, 0.3229564351, -0.7418141657, 0.0384120159, 1.0993439146, 1.2603409756, -0.1466244739, -1.4463212439]
2[-1.0603297501, 2.3544967095000002, -3.5638788326, 5.1387348926, -1.2308457019, -0.7687824608, -3.5881228109, 1.8880837663, -3.2789674274, -3.9563254554, 4.0993439118, -5.6539176395, -0.8775733373, -9.131571192000001, -0.6093537873, -3.7480276773, -5.0309125017, -0.8748149526000001, 1.9870535692, 0.7005485718000001, 0.9204422758, -0.1041491809, 0.3229564351, -0.7418141657, 0.0384120159, 1.0993439146, 1.2603409756, -0.1466244739, -1.4463212439]
3[-1.0603297501, 2.3544967095000002, -3.5638788326, 5.1387348926, -1.2308457019, -0.7687824608, -3.5881228109, 1.8880837663, -3.2789674274, -3.9563254554, 4.0993439118, -5.6539176395, -0.8775733373, -9.131571192000001, -0.6093537873, -3.7480276773, -5.0309125017, -0.8748149526000001, 1.9870535692, 0.7005485718000001, 0.9204422758, -0.1041491809, 0.3229564351, -0.7418141657, 0.0384120159, 1.0993439146, 1.2603409756, -0.1466244739, -1.4463212439]
4[0.5817662108, 0.09788155100000001, 0.1546819424, 0.4754101949, -0.19788623060000002, -0.45043448540000003, 0.016654044700000002, -0.0256070551, 0.0920561602, -0.2783917153, 0.059329944100000004, -0.0196585416, -0.4225083157, -0.12175388770000001, 1.5473094894000001, 0.2391622864, 0.3553974881, -0.7685165301, -0.7000849355000001, -0.1190043285, -0.3450517133, -1.1065114108, 0.2523411195, 0.0209441826, 0.2199267436, 0.2540689265, -0.0450225094, 0.10867738980000001, 0.2547179311]

OUTPUT

 timein.tensorout.dense_1anomaly.count
02023-11-17 20:34:17.005[-1.0603297501, 2.3544967095, -3.5638788326, 5.1387348926, -1.2308457019, -0.7687824608, -3.5881228109, 1.8880837663, -3.2789674274, -3.9563254554, 4.0993439118, -5.6539176395, -0.8775733373, -9.131571192, -0.6093537873, -3.7480276773, -5.0309125017, -0.8748149526, 1.9870535692, 0.7005485718, 0.9204422758, -0.1041491809, 0.3229564351, -0.7418141657, 0.0384120159, 1.0993439146, 1.2603409756, -0.1466244739, -1.4463212439][0.99300325]0
12023-11-17 20:34:17.005[-1.0603297501, 2.3544967095, -3.5638788326, 5.1387348926, -1.2308457019, -0.7687824608, -3.5881228109, 1.8880837663, -3.2789674274, -3.9563254554, 4.0993439118, -5.6539176395, -0.8775733373, -9.131571192, -0.6093537873, -3.7480276773, -5.0309125017, -0.8748149526, 1.9870535692, 0.7005485718, 0.9204422758, -0.1041491809, 0.3229564351, -0.7418141657, 0.0384120159, 1.0993439146, 1.2603409756, -0.1466244739, -1.4463212439][0.99300325]0
22023-11-17 20:34:17.005[-1.0603297501, 2.3544967095, -3.5638788326, 5.1387348926, -1.2308457019, -0.7687824608, -3.5881228109, 1.8880837663, -3.2789674274, -3.9563254554, 4.0993439118, -5.6539176395, -0.8775733373, -9.131571192, -0.6093537873, -3.7480276773, -5.0309125017, -0.8748149526, 1.9870535692, 0.7005485718, 0.9204422758, -0.1041491809, 0.3229564351, -0.7418141657, 0.0384120159, 1.0993439146, 1.2603409756, -0.1466244739, -1.4463212439][0.99300325]0
32023-11-17 20:34:17.005[-1.0603297501, 2.3544967095, -3.5638788326, 5.1387348926, -1.2308457019, -0.7687824608, -3.5881228109, 1.8880837663, -3.2789674274, -3.9563254554, 4.0993439118, -5.6539176395, -0.8775733373, -9.131571192, -0.6093537873, -3.7480276773, -5.0309125017, -0.8748149526, 1.9870535692, 0.7005485718, 0.9204422758, -0.1041491809, 0.3229564351, -0.7418141657, 0.0384120159, 1.0993439146, 1.2603409756, -0.1466244739, -1.4463212439][0.99300325]0
42023-11-17 20:34:17.005[0.5817662108, 0.097881551, 0.1546819424, 0.4754101949, -0.1978862306, -0.4504344854, 0.0166540447, -0.0256070551, 0.0920561602, -0.2783917153, 0.0593299441, -0.0196585416, -0.4225083157, -0.1217538877, 1.5473094894, 0.2391622864, 0.3553974881, -0.7685165301, -0.7000849355, -0.1190043285, -0.3450517133, -1.1065114108, 0.2523411195, 0.0209441826, 0.2199267436, 0.2540689265, -0.0450225094, 0.1086773898, 0.2547179311][0.0010916889]0

All Inputs Are Tensors

All inputs into an ONNX model must be tensors. This requires that the shape of each element is the same. For example, the following is a proper input:

t [
    [2.35, 5.75],
    [3.72, 8.55],
    [5.55, 97.2]
]
Standard tensor array

Another example is a 2,2,3 tensor, where the shape of each element is (3,), and each element has 2 rows.

t = [
        [2.35, 5.75, 19.2],
        [3.72, 8.55, 10.5]
    ],
    [
        [5.55, 7.2, 15.7],
        [9.6, 8.2, 2.3]
    ]

In this example each element has a shape of (2,). Tensors with elements of different shapes, known as ragged tensors, are not supported. For example:

t = [
    [2.35, 5.75],
    [3.72, 8.55, 10.5],
    [5.55, 97.2]
])

**INVALID SHAPE**
Ragged tensor array - unsupported

For models that require ragged tensor or other shapes, see other data formatting options such as Bring Your Own Predict models.

Data Type Consistency

All inputs into an ONNX model must have the same internal data type. For example, the following is valid because all of the data types within each element are float32.

t = [
    [2.35, 5.75],
    [3.72, 8.55],
    [5.55, 97.2]
]

The following is invalid, as it mixes floats and strings in each element:

t = [
    [2.35, "Bob"],
    [3.72, "Nancy"],
    [5.55, "Wani"]
]

The following inputs are valid, as each data type is consistent within the elements.

df = pd.DataFrame({
    "t": [
        [2.35, 5.75, 19.2],
        [5.55, 7.2, 15.7],
    ],
    "s": [
        ["Bob", "Nancy", "Wani"],
        ["Jason", "Rita", "Phoebe"]
    ]
})
df
 ts
0[2.35, 5.75, 19.2][Bob, Nancy, Wani]
1[5.55, 7.2, 15.7][Jason, Rita, Phoebe]

Models can be converted to native runtime models by meeting the following requirements.

Wallaroo ONNX Requirements

Wallaroo natively supports Open Neural Network Exchange (ONNX) models into the Wallaroo engine.

ParameterDescription
Web Sitehttps://onnx.ai/
Supported LibrariesSee table below.
FrameworkFramework.ONNX aka onnx
RuntimeNative aka onnx
Supported Versions1.12.1

The following ONNX versions models are supported:

ONNX VersionONNX IR VersionONNX OPset VersionONNX ML Opset Version
1.12.18173
  • If converting another ML Model to ONNX (PyTorch, XGBoost, etc) using the onnxconverter-common library, the supported DEFAULT_OPSET_NUMBER is 17.

Using different versions or settings outside of these specifications may result in inference issues and other unexpected behavior.

ONNX models always run in the Wallaroo Native Runtime space.

The following ML Model versions and Python libraries are supported by Wallaroo. When using the Wallaroo autoconversion library or working with a local version of the Wallaroo SDK, use the following versions for maximum compatibility.

LibrarySupported Version
Python3.8.6 and above
onnxonnx==1.12.1
tensorflowtensorflow==2.9.3
keraskeras==2.9.0
pytorchtorch==2.0.0
sk-learn aka scikit-learnscikit-learn==1.3.0
statsmodelsstatsmodels==0.13.2
XGBoostxgboost==1.7.4
MLFlowmlflow==1.3.0

Supported Data Types

The following data types are supported for transporting data to and from Wallaroo in the following run times:

  • ONNX
  • TensorFlow
  • MLFlow

Data Type Conditions

The following conditions apply to data types used in inference requests.

  • None or Null data types are not submitted. All fields must have submitted values that match their data type. For example, if the schema expects a float value, then some value of type float must be submitted and can not be None or Null. If a schema expects a string value, then some value of type string must be submitted, etc.
  • datetime data types must be converted to string.
  • ONNX models support multiple inputs only of the same data type.
RuntimeBFloat16*Float16Float32Float64
ONNXXX
TensorFlowXXX
MLFlowXXX
  • * (Brain Float 16, represented internally as a f32)

RuntimeInt8Int16Int32Int64
ONNXXXXX
TensorFlowXXXX
MLFlowXXXX
RuntimeUint8Uint16Uint32Uint64
ONNXXXXX
TensorFlowXXXX
MLFlowXXXX
RuntimeBooleanUtf8 (String)Complex 64Complex 128FixedSizeList*
ONNXX
TensorXXX
MLFlowXXX
  • * Fixed sized lists of any of the previously supported data types.

Can I Import My Own Notebooks Into Wallaroo?

Yes! Jupyter Hub is provided as a service in your Wallaroo instance. So feel free to import your notebooks, models, and data to get right to work.

What Is The Difference Between A Model And A Pipeline In Wallaroo?

A Model, or Machine Learning Model (ML), has been trained by data scientists to take in data and return some result. A Wallaroo Pipeline can set one or more models as steps in the pipeline. This lets you submit data to a pipeline, have that data sent to each model, then return a result.

This provides you with the power to set the order for how pipelines provide inferences in different orders, chain different models together to run comparisons, or any other combination of tasks you can come up with.

Can I Train A Model In Wallaroo?

While Wallaroo contains an entire Python library and allows you full access and control within that environment, models should be trained outside of Wallaroo, then imported into Wallaroo to be deployed and run as an object in the Wallaroo engine.

How Can I Serve My Models Up To Return Predictions?

Once you have uploaded your models to Wallaroo and deployed a pipeline that steps through how information is submitted to each model you use for the inference, you can serve your models in the following ways:

Can I A/B Test My Models In Wallaroo?

Yes! Wallaroo supports A/B testing through the following mechanisms:

  • Set up Control and Challenger models
  • Define a pipeline to split data between the two models
  • Test the Challenger model and return the results.
  • Perform a Shadow Deploy to send data to both models, but only return to the user the results from the Control model. This allows users to test Challenger models without sacrificing production deployments.

Where Can I See Pipeline Performance Metrics?

Pipeline metrics can be seen through the Wallaroo Dashboard through the following process:

  1. From the Wallaroo Dashboard, set the current workspace from the top left dropdown list.
  2. Select View Pipelines from the pipeline’s row.
  3. To view details on the pipeline, select the name of the pipeline.
  4. A list of the pipeline’s details will be displayed.
  5. Select Metrics to view the following information. From here you can select the time period to display metrics from through the drop down to display the following:
    1. Requests per second
    2. Cluster inference rate
    3. Inference latency
  6. The Audit Log and Anomaly Log are available to view further details of the pipeline’s activities.

How Are Wallaroo Enterprise And Wallaroo Community Edition Different?

Wallaroo Community is different from Wallaroo Enterprise based on the available features and restrictions.

FeatureWallaroo CommunityWallaroo Enterprise
Max Number of Cores32Unlimited
Max Number of Users2Unlimited
Max Number of Deployed Pipelines2Unlimited
Max Steps per Pipeline5Unlimited
Single Sign On
Compute Auto-Scaling
Wallaroo Support ServicesWallaroo Community SlackWallaroo Enterprise Support